Music and science - rarely does one subject evoke the other as often or as well. We have to be clear, however, by what we use as our definition of music.
There are several differing opinions about what can be defined as music. Some would argue that music can be any sound whatsoever, and said sound would be music to some and noise to others.
We are going to take the position that music is some kind of ordered sound and any further reference to music will have this assumption in mind.
A fairly popular science fair project is the topic of "Music vs. Noise" - tread carefully! In order to pursue this as your topic of interest, you will have to make and state your assumptions very clearly in order for this particular project to be taken seriously and have merit.
Our suggestion would be to state what definition of music you intend to use. Wikipedia covers music and science pretty well, and is a good starting point to get yourself more familiar with the ins and outs of what constitutes ordered sound - music.
When creating a project based upon some variation of comparing music to noise, take care not to conduct a survey. Having an opinion is all well and good - but it is not science. Stick to the measurable facts.
There has been quite a lot of interest in this combination: does music have an effect on biological systems? There have been studies suggesting that various forms of music might have an effect upon the learning capabilities of human subjects.
Other studies have discounted these reports, this investigation on music and science goes over both standpoints and show another experiment in this area.
Still other experiments tried to test whether music had an effect upon the rate of growth in plants, and yet others tried to determine if there was a link between heart rate and music while doing a physical activity.
If you would like to do an experiment like these, make sure to follow the scientific method, do proper research, and follow the guidelines for your science event. And, of course, have some fun! This can be a great topic to investigate, leading to all sorts of interesting science.